General Physics Study Notes, Questions and Answers

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What is the meaning of the term 'Physics' .
Identify radiation B and provide an explanation for the differing deviations observed in the paths of radiations A and C as they pass through an electric field, as depicted in figure 15.
Determine the atomic number and mass number of thorium through its decay to protactinium by emitting a beta particle (Β).
Name two uses of a junction diode.
Sketch the CRO screen graph of the output and explain the production of the output in the circuit connected by the student as shown in figure 16.
Determine the frequency of X-rays produced in an X-ray tube with a 12000V acceleration voltage, assuming full energy conversion, using Planck's constant and the charge of an electron.
What specific characteristic of lead makes it an appropriate choice for use as a shielding material.
Name the components labeled A and B in the X-ray tube, explain how altering the potential across P affects X-ray intensity, and describe the cause of the high temperature in the tube during operation.
State the specific type of X-rays utilized for detecting cracks inside metal beams and provide a justification for your choice.
Define the term 'Resistor' .
Enumerate two distinctions between a pinhole camera and the human eye.
Using an appropriate ray, find the focal length (f) and radius of curvature (r) of the concave mirror that forms the image I of the object O shown in the diagram.
Explain why iron containers are preferred for the electromagnet-based container loader and provide two ways to increase its lifting capacity.
Identify the type of radiation represented by the symbol A in the arrangement of different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum shown in the chart.
Explain why when a vibrating tuning fork with a frequency of 512Hz is brought close to two test tubes with water levels as shown in the image, it produces a loud sound in test tube X but not in test tube Y.
Describe UV light releasing electrons from zinc, its name, metal work function, and calculate max kinetic energy in joules.
Define 'thermionic emission' .
Explain the reason behind the observed deflection of the candle flame in Figure 2, where a thin wire is connected to a charge generator and positioned nearby.
Wave Velocity Calculation
How do you differentiate between a primary cell and a secondary cell.
Explain which spring balance will show a lower number when the block is about to start moving in the student's experiment to measure static friction with wooden blocks.
Determine speed limit violation, calculate max tire braking force during skid, and explain the impact of reduced wet road braking force on stopping distance, assuming constant initial speed.
Calculate the centripetal force, identify the string breakage point, determine the landing height, and find the horizontal distance traveled by a 100g stone in a 0.4m radius vertical circle making 2 revolutions per second.
Sketch a volume (cm3) vs temperature (°C) graph on the provided grid, marking the absolute zero temperature with 'T', and state the two assumptions in the experiment.
Explain the roles of concentrated sulfuric acid, the stirrer, and the measurements in confirming Charles's Law in the gas volume-temperature experiment.
Define the concept of absolute zero temperature as it pertains to an ideal gas.
Calculate the volume of the oil drop, the area of oil patch, the thickness of the oil molecule and lastly state any 2 observations/ assumptions made after conducting the experiment.
Find the pressure exerted on a piston with a surface area of 20 cm2 when a force of 50 MN is applied to it.
Explain what happened when a student heated water in a container, sealed it with a cork, and poured cold water on it.
Calculate the air density at an altitude of 548 meters, provided that the barometric height is 70 cmHg, standard atmospheric pressure is 76 cmHg, and mercury density is 13600 kg/m^3.
Provide a rationale for the preference of mercury as the liquid in glass barometers.
In the image of the simple mercury barometer, explain why the mercury did not completely fill the tube when it was tilted.
Explain why the sphere in liquid B attains a higher terminal velocity compared to the sphere in liquid A, as depicted in the velocity-time graph shown in the figure.
Determine the length of the wooden plank given that it is balanced by a 2.5kg weight 0.8 meters from one end, and the plank itself weighs 10 Newtons.
Determine the elastic potential energy stored by the compressed spring, as illustrated in Figure 6, when it is compressed by a 4.0kg mass.
Calculate the velocity ratio and efficiency of the inclined wooden plane, tilted at 30 degrees to the horizontal, as a 10kg object is pulled up the plane using a 60N force.
In the shown experiment, a student used a hand lens to observe pollen grains on the water's surface, leading to an observation, an explanation, and a conclusion. State them.
The pulley arrangement shown in the diagram, which supports a 50N load, has an efficiency of 80%. Calculate the required effort, E.
Provide one justification for why heat transfer through radiation is swifter than through conduction.
In a section of a pipe with varying cross-sectional areas (as shown in figure 5.0), if water is flowing at a velocity of 10m/s in section A, what will be the velocity of water in section B.
Using the vernier caliper scale shown in the figure, calculate the corrected reading when the calipers have a zero error of -0.02.
Using figure 9, indicate the point of leakage on the toy boat placed on still water and explain the reason for your indication.
Illustrate the expected behavior of the soap film when punctured at point P in a diagram.
Complete the table for the extension.
Compare and explain the distinctions between the force-extension behaviors of a steel coil spring and the wire it is made from, presented on a single graph.
What are two factors that result in machine efficiency being less than 100%.
Determine the effort needed to lift a 200N load with a wheel and axle machine having a 5cm axle radius (r) and a 50cm wheel radius (R), and confirm that the velocity ratio (V.R) is R/r.
Explain two methods by which machines facilitate the simplification of work.
Calculate the car's final velocity, distance covered, time to stop, and distance traveled before stopping, given initial velocity and deceleration.
Examine the body's motion in the regions OA, AB, and BC based on the provided velocity-time graph.
Explain the oil spreading phenomenon, calculate the volume of the oil drop, find the area of the resulting patch, and mention two related assumptions in the experiment.
Using the provided figure, determine the pressure at point A, the pressure difference in the instrument reading, and the gas pressure given an atmospheric pressure of 760 mm of mercury.
Find the diameter of the larger tube in centimeters when the smaller tube has an area of 0.05 square meters.
Describe the outcome when air is blown simultaneously at points A and B with the same speed and duration, considering the arrangement of the two paper sheets shown in the figure.
Explain the differences between streamline and turbulent flow.
Describe why touching an iron gate feels colder while its wooden gatepost feels warmer during the night.
Determine the sand's average retarding force when a 20g bullet, traveling at 30m/s, comes to a stop within 0.05 seconds upon penetrating a sandbag.
A cork tightly sealed in a bottle becomes easier to extract when the bottle is warmed due to the principles of kinetic and thermal properties of matter.
Describe one method to make a mercury-in-glass thermometer more sensitive.
In the provided diagram, there are identical springs supporting a 60N weight, resulting in a total extension of 6cm. Determine the spring constant for a single spring.
Describe why the system, initially at equilibrium at room temperature, tilts to the right when placed outside where it's 10°C warmer.
Explain the impact of pouring water into the hollow section of the rectangular block in stable equilibrium, and provide the reasoning behind your answer.
Find the barometer reading atop Mt. Kenya, given a 75 cmHg reading at its base, an altitude of 1088 meters, and using average air density of 1.25 kg/m3 and mercury density of 13.6 g/cm3.
Calculate the weight of the meter rule, given it's supported at the 30cm mark with a 5N load at the 0cm mark and a 2N load at the 100cm mark.
Find the thickness of each microscope slide coverslip in a stack of 10, given a micrometer screw gauge reading with a negative zero error of 0.01 mm.
Calculate the final velocity of an eastward-moving object that decelerates at 2.0 m/s² after covering 24 meters.
For a car journey consisting of acceleration, constant velocity, and deceleration, draw a velocity-time graph for the entire trip and calculate the average speed.
Calculate the mass of lead shots and the submerged length of a test tube, given its properties and conditions in water and a different liquid.
Find the weight of seawater displaced, the upward water force, and cable tension for a 100kg rectangular object tethered to the seabed with specified dimensions and seawater density.
State Archimedes' principle.
How fast is a 200g object moving in a 32cm radius circle, and what's the string tension at the highest point, with a 10.5N tension at the lowest point and 10 m/s² gravity.
What is the car's safe maximum speed on a 25m-radius circular path with a 1000kg mass and a 6500N frictional force, preventing skidding.
What are the two factors that influence a car's critical speed when negotiating an unbanked circular track.
Show how to find the mass of condensed steam in a copper can experiment with water, steam, and given heat capacities and temperatures.
How to determine specific heat capacity of a metal block using an experimental setup.
Calculate the power rating and energy loss per second of an electric pump with a 70% efficiency that lifts water to a height of 15m and delivers it at a rate of 350 litres per minute.
Fill in the table that displays energy conversion from form A to form B, along with the corresponding transducers in use.
State when work is done.
Determine the release height 'h' of a vertically suspended metal ball swung from point A to point B, given a maximum velocity of 2.5 m/s at point B, and an acceleration due to gravity of 10 m/s2.
Explain why does the pith ball rise when placed inside the funnel end of a blower, as shown in the provided image .
Using the diagram provided, calculate the value of length X for three identical springs that follow Hooke's law.
When a resultant force F acts on a body with mass 'm' it results in an acceleration of a1. If the same force acts on a body with mass 2m, it leads to an acceleration of a2. Express a2 in terms of a1.
Describe the expected outcome and provide a reason for the result when cold water is poured onto the flask depicted in the diagram, with a glass tube tightly sealed with a cork and dipped into a beaker of room-temperature water.
Explain the reason behind the observed behavior of a Bunsen burner flame when initially burning below a wire gauze and then eventually both below and above the gauze.
Describe the reason for the random motion of smoke particles in a Brownian motion experiment using a smoke cell.
Determine the atmospheric pressure in Mombasa based on a mercury barometer reading of 760mm, considering the density of mercury as 1.36x10^4 kg/m3.
Uniform metallic bar, 100cm long, 40kg mass, supported by two spring balances A and B, 20cm and 30cm from ends, respectively. Find A and B readings.
Sketch a vernier callipers scale reading 3.41 cm.
Add 3cm³ more water from a special tube and write down the new numbers you see.
Meter rule oscillation experiment with plasticine, data and analysis.
Learn how to determine the average value of f the focal length of the lens from an experiment.
Learn how to plot a graph of current I (y-axis) (mA) against time t (s).
From the data presented create a graph depicting the relationship between real depth and apparent depth and subsequently calculate the gradient from the graph.
Why does a pin, placed at the bottom of a beaker filled with transparent liquid, appear closer to the surface when viewed from above than its actual depth.
In the diagram presented has a U-shaped iron core.Indicate the polarity at points X and Y. Additionally, name two practical applications for such an electromagnet
Finalize the diagram provided to depict the magnetic field patterns.
State on what makes repulsion the most dependable way to identify a magnet.
What is magnetisation. Name any 2 magnetisation methods.
What are or is electrostatic charges. State any 2 dangers of electrostatic charges.
Explain why taking shelter under a tree in the rain is not recommended.
State the explanation for the displacement of a candle flame when a highly charged metal object is brought near it.
Explain what happens to the gold leaf in an electroscope when a highly charged steel pin is placed on its cap, and why does this occur.
How does a material come to possess a positive charge, explain.
State any 2 real-life scenarios where resistors find practical applications.
Calculate effective resistance, total current, current through 4Ω resistor. Also, find total energy if current flows for 2 minutes.
Define the term 'Resistor' .
Name 3 factors that affect the capacitance of a capacitor.
Calculate the effective capacitance and the total charge for the 3 connected capacitors.
Define the term 'Capacitance' .
Define the term 'Capacitor' .
Point out 2 types of waves.
Name 2 distinguishing characteristics that set apart a pinhole camera from the human eye.
Explain the rationale behind the use of soft iron as the core material in the coil of an electric bell.
Calculate the frequency of a radio wave with a wavelength of 1 km, given that it travels at a speed of 3 x 10^8 m/s.
What is a gold leaf electroscope. State 2 uses of gold leaf electroscope.
When the current flowing through a wire of resistance 'R' is multiplied by seven, what is the factor by which the rate of heat production increases.
Show the direction of the refracted ray and calculate the angle of refraction, given that the refractive index of the denser medium is 1.4.
What are the amplitude and frequency of the wave depicted in the provided image.
Name 2 factors that influence the resistivity of an electrical conductor.
State 2 benefits of using a convex mirror as a rear view or side mirror while driving.
Name two things that decide how strong an electromagnet is.
Show how the magnetic fields look around the wires with current in the provided picture.
Find where the object's image is when placed in front of this plane mirror.
How are keepers used to store magnets, and what is their role in assisting with magnet storage, including marking the polarity of magnet B on the diagram.
What happens when a rod with a lot of negative charge comes close to the cap of a positively charged gold leaf electroscope, and why does it happen.
State 2 advantages of a lead acid accumulator over dry cells.
An experiment with a vertically suspended spring includes recording data, plotting a graph, and making calculations for different masses, the spring constant, and a series of two springs with a 1.5kg mass.
State Hooke's law.
State why a convex mirror is chosen for use as a driving mirror instead of a flat, or plane, mirror.
Determine the image location, image distance, and magnification for a 10cm tall object positioned 5cm in front of a concave mirror with a 10cm focal length using a ray diagram.
Distinguish real images from virtual images.
Explain the operation of the electric bell, the impact of a steel armature, and the required adjustment for efficient lower voltage battery operation.
Draw the field pattern and indicate force directions for a current-carrying conductor current flowing into the paper, current flowing out of the paper.
State the Fleming's left hand rule as a physics principal.
Calculate the volume of one oil drop, the final burette reading after 5000 drops with a 0.7 mm radius, find the area of a 21.0 m diameter oil patch on water, determine the oil molecule's thickness, and state one assumption.
Create a diagram of a micrometer screw gauge reading 12.25 mm.
Name 2 more factors affecting force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field.
Given a ray of light incident on a plane mirror, when the mirror is rotated clockwise by 10 degrees, what is the angle between the incident and reflected rays.
What is the polarity of ends P and Q in the provided diagram when the current is turned on.
Define the term 'Electromagnet' as used in physics.
The task at hand is to determine the precise location of the center of gravity within the cardboard shape.
Find the minimum pressure it applies on the surface and the density of the block in kg/m3.
State why a balloon stick to the ceiling when you rub it on your blazer.
If 3 forces, one pushing to the right with 12N, one pushing down with 4N, and one pushing to the left with 15N, all acted on an object and it stayed still, what is the total force on the object.
Name 2 good things about an alkaline battery compared to a lead-acid battery.
Calculating Gas Pressure Using U-Tube Manometer and Oil.
State two things that can change how much a force makes something turn.
If C extends by 4 cm, how much would A extend. Determine the force F that would cause these extensions.
Define scalar quantity and vector quantity.What are the similarities between them. State the difference of scalar and vector quantity.
Determine the acceleration due to gravity on a specific planet where a mass of 7.5 kilograms has a weight of 30 Newtons.
Determine the man's weight on the moon, given that he has a mass of 70 kilograms, and the moon's gravitational field strength is 1.7 Newtons per kilogram.
Define mass and weight.Give any 3 differences between mass and weight.
Provide a single characteristic/property of a liquid applicable for use in a hydraulic machine.
In the hydraulic machine depicted with a small piston area of 2cm2 and a large piston area of 1000cm2, calculate the force required on the small piston to lift a 2000kg load.
Describe Pascal's principle regarding the transmission of pressure in fluids.
Elaborate on the reasons for the vulnerability of water pipes to bursting in winter.
Why can aquatic animals survive beneath layers of ice even when the surface is entirely frozen? Explain.
Create a temperature-density graph for the heating of water from 0°C to 10°C.
What is your interpretation of the anomalous expansion of water.
Provide a rationale for why using boiling water is not suitable for sterilizing a clinical thermometer.
Identify and provide explanations for the two distinct characteristics of a clinical thermometer.
State 3 properties of a good thermometric liquid.
Converting Kelvin to Degrees celsius.
Define the term 'Temperature' and state its SI unit.
If the water level in a burette is initially at 30cm3, and 55 drops of water, each with an average volume of 0.12cm3, fall from the burette, what will be the new water level in the burette
What is the thickness of a book consisting of 1000 sheets, each 0.05mm thick, bound between two covers, each 0.10mm thick.
Determine the density of the second liquid when a density bottle registers a mass of 20.0g when empty, 70.0g when filled with water, and 55.0g when filled with the second liquid.
Calculate the volume of 3.6 kilograms of concentrated sulfuric acid with a density of 1.8 grams per cubic centimeter.
Define the term 'Density' and state its SI unit.
Explain the setup for observing Brownian motion, including the roles of the lamp, lens, microscope, smoke cell observations, and the impact of temperature changes.
Define the term 'Matter'.
Find the maximum and minimum pressures exerted by a 25N wooden block measuring 25cm by 15cm by 5cm on a flat surface.
Explain why is it simpler to slice through a wooden log using a sharp machete compared to a dull one.
Explain why are the walls at the bottom of water dams thicker than the ones at the top.
Define the term 'Pressure' and state its SI unit.
Explain why, when we heat a flask with colored water and a rubber cork pushed into a glass tube, the water level initially drops before it starts to rise.
Elaborate on why does thick glass tend to break more often when you pour hot water on it compared to thin glass.
At first, a metal pin could float on top of plain water, but it sank when soap was added to the water. Can you explain why this happened.
In the image (a) with a wax-coated glass surface and (b) with a clean glass surface, explain why the shapes of the water droplets differ.
Define the term 'Force' and state its SI unit.
Name 3 branches of physics that we learn about.
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